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In the dynamic world of software development, creating solutions that are not only innovative but also efficient and maintainable is paramount. This guide combines industry insights, emphasizing practices in promoting excellence in software development. It goes beyond mere coding.


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The Philosophy of Software Development

Building Cities

Software development is more than writing code. It's about constructing robust ecosystems. Similar to how a city comprises more than its buildings, software is more than its codebase. It's a complex integration of functionalities, user experiences, and adaptability. This perspective ensures that developers aren't merely coding but are architecting the environments that support diverse user needs, fostering growth and adaptation.

This dynamic perception of software emphasizes the importance of the relationships between its components. The system becomes more than just the sum of its parts; the relations between elements are crucial, allowing the software to adapt and respond to evolving user demands. Thus, maintaining a holistic perspective is essential, akin to urban planning, where each building affects and is influenced by its surroundings. In software, each component must align with the system's overall state to enhance its functionality and relevance. Make sure your software remains coherent, adaptable, and meaningful.

Incremental Progress

The ability to receive feedback from teams, clients, and users is invaluable. Effective software development isn't the result of an upfront design but a cumulative process of discovery and exploration. This journey enhances understanding of the business and problem space, fostering expertise in specific business niches.

Engineering is fundamentally about experimentation, testing ideas, measuring, and comparing results. It's these qualities that elevate it beyond mere craftsmanship. Small, visible steps that all stakeholders can experience give software developers a significant advantage over traditional engineering disciplines, making their work more responsive and adaptable.

The practice of frequent commits underscores the significance of incremental progress in software development. This methodology breaks down the development process into manageable segments, enhancing progress tracking and providing a tangible sense of accomplishment.

This skill, which evolves with experience and mentorship, transforms large, daunting tasks into a series of smaller, achievable objectives. It's a testament to the power of small, consistent steps in building complex systems.

The Art of Simplicity

Developers must focus on what truly matters to the business rather than getting sidetracked by less relevant technical intricacies. The priority should be to align the software with the real-world operations of the business. Recognize what is the actual requirement without adding pure technological aspirations.

A common pitfall is overemphasizing perfect data consistency, which can lead to overly complicated designs without providing significant benefits. It's essential to recognize that businesses often thrive in environments of natural inconsistency, and only some issues are technical.

A deep understanding of the supported business is critical to excel in development. Keeping designs simple and adaptable is vital, and severe design decisions should be deferred as long as possible. When a decision is necessary, opting for the most straightforward available alternative is usually the best approach.

This strategy enables developers to stay flexible and responsive to evolving business needs. By adopting this mindset, developers can make more informed and effective decisions, leveraging their growing knowledge and the additional information they gather.

The primary goal is to create intuitively obvious designs, reducing the cognitive load on developers and end-users. A simple design is easier to manage, modify, and understand. This approach involves minimizing the impact of design decisions on the codebase, thereby reducing the need for extensive modifications.

Developers must remember that what seems straightforward might be complex for others. Therefore, achieving simplicity is a continual process of refinement and understanding from multiple perspectives.

Managing Complexity

Accumulation of Complexity

Complexity in software is often not the result of a glaring error but the cumulative effect of minor, unnoticed issues. Recognizing and addressing these incremental complexities is crucial to prevent them from escalating into more significant, unmanageable problems.

Simplicity is the cornerstone of creating maintainable, bug-free software.

Proactive software development is essential, with refactoring being a continuous process, not a separate task. This approach keeps models relevant and aligned with current understanding. Focusing on interactions between modules, managing dependencies, data exposure, and ownership is necessary.

Software should be allowed to evolve with modularity and flexibility to avoid being hindered by past decisions. Always design with the possibility of unforeseen changes in mind, ensuring adaptability.

Hiding Complexity

A key aspect of software development is the creation of effective abstractions. These are simplified representations of complex systems designed to hide unnecessary details while highlighting essential functionality.

However, developers must be cautious of semantic coupling, where the abstraction inadvertently introduces additional complexity. The challenge lies in crafting abstractions that are both simple and sufficiently informative, striking a balance between too much and too little detail.

Models in software are simplifications highlighting key elements relevant to a specific context, not detailed replicas of reality. Similarly, abstraction's role is to capture essential aspects from the solution space, distilling the subject's essence.

Abstractions should be scoped narrowly to avoid becoming convoluted by conflicting requirements from various uses. It's crucial to keep the internal concepts of your model private, as abstraction focuses on language; public elements of your model become binding commitments.

Therefore, designing the API for communication across boundaries is the most challenging and vital aspect, as it defines how your model interacts with the outside world. It is also what you have promised to the others.

Effective Design

Balancing Perfection and Practicality

In software development, the developer's role extends beyond simply minimizing complexity; it involves pragmatic decision-making, discerning when a solution is sufficiently effective, and avoiding the pursuit of perfection.

This balance is crucial to prevent over-engineering, unnecessary complexity, and resource wastage. Emphasizing practicality and efficiency, it's essential to recognize what constitutes "good enough," steering clear of the allure of unattainable ideals. The power of incremental changes is vital in complex systems, where sweeping, radical changes can bring risks and uncertainties.

Advocating for minor, iterative enhancements promotes continuous refinement, leading to more stable and sustainable development. This approach highlights the importance of carefully balancing idealistic goals and pragmatic implementation in software architecture.

The Danger of Overconfidence

Overconfidence can be a significant obstacle. This mindset can lead developers to a restricted problem-solving view, often overlooking alternative, more effective solutions. Developers must remain open-minded, constantly questioning and reassessing their decisions to avoid becoming too narrow.

Another critical aspect is the relationship between the developer and the client. Believing that you understand the client's business better than they do is a real danger. In reality, developers and clients perceive situations from two distinct perspectives.

The general rule is that clients' understanding of their business needs is usually correct. The primary role of software is to support and enhance the capabilities of a business, not to define or restrict them.

Effective communication within a company, using a well-developed language, is crucial as it facilitates the flow of knowledge. This flow impacts both the mindset of developers and the code they write. It's not unusual to encounter contradictions or illogical elements in the codebase, which can be valuable opportunities to deepen understanding and, at times, streamline business processes.

The ideal scenario is a complementary relationship between developers and clients, each extending their capabilities and understanding. Remember, software is meant to support business operations, not dictate them. It's seldom beneficial when a business has to conform to the limitations of the software in use.


Decision-Making as an Investment

In software development, every decision, no matter how small, represents an investment. It's crucial to consider not just the immediate benefits of an option but its long-term effects. This approach helps make decisions that fully acknowledge their impact on the project.

Every feature deployed into production brings responsibilities like maintenance, observability, monitoring, and ongoing development. The cost of a feature is not just in its creation but also in the added complexity it introduces. This complexity requires other developers to understand the new elements to continue working on the project.

Every addition has a cost associated with it. Choosing a particular approach can limit future opportunities. Understanding the cost of implementing a feature in a specific way is essential.

Always explore multiple alternatives, even if only theoretically. Comparing different solutions allows for a more informed choice. Remember, every decision is a trade-off, requiring compromise.

Refrain from being too attached to initial ideas, which are often flawed. Consulting with your team or clients early in the process is beneficial. Waiting until the code review stage may be too late for significant changes.

Engaging the entire team in your work adds value to code reviews and shapes the final solution. If something needs to be clarified to others, it provides valuable early feedback.

Embracing Change

Embracing change empowers software developers, relieving the burden of attempting to create future-proof designs. This acceptance enables concentrating on solving present challenges effectively. Such adaptability is crucial to building resilient and flexible architectures ready to evolve with changing requirements and technologies.

It's natural for developers to be biased towards creating elastic and configurable solutions, aiming to meet future needs. However, this is only effective to a certain extent. We cannot predict the future accurately and only adapt to anticipated changes.

Often, our predictions need to be corrected, making the added complexity unjustified. This isn't to discourage striving for adaptable designs; such an approach is valuable. But it's important to recognize its limitations. Consider what is known and unknown.

The goal isn't to build a universal solution but to focus on a custom approach that fits specific needs. Overly complicated solutions, designed in the name of flexibility, may not withstand the test of time in a rapidly changing environment. Starting with something simple can be beneficial.

Avoid overcomplicating elements that don't require it. The aim isn't to achieve perfection but to create solutions that can be easily extended in the future.


Software development is a perpetual learning, adaptation, and refinement journey. It's about crafting solutions that meet user needs and stand the test of time, not just fulfilling a developer's vision.

Everything in software development is a trade-off; there is no perfect solution.

Building a complex system is more similar to constructing a city than a single building. Every concept added to the system is both influenced by the existing system and, in turn, influences the entire system. This intricate web of interactions means that every decision made in the development process potentially closes some doors to other opportunities in the future.

Thus, focusing on sustainable growth while safeguarding essential qualities is vital. Rearranging a complex system is no trivial task. We must ensure that it continuously works and serves its users, adapting and evolving as the needs and contexts change. In this way, software development mirrors the complexities of our ever-evolving world, requiring us to balance innovation, stability, and the greater good.

Reviewed by: Michał Matłoka, Bartłomiej Żyliński

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